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World Tourism Organization Updated Statement On The Zika Virus

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Madrid, Spain, 2 February 2016  

Updated UNWTO Statement on the Zika Virus

Following the declaration by the World Health Organization (WHO) of a Public Health Emergency
of International Concern on 1 February 2016 on the Zika virus, UNWTO recalls that according to
WHO there should be no restrictions on travel with the affected areas and that the following travel
measures should be observed:

WHO statement on the first meeting of the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) Emergency Committee on
Zika virus and observed increase in neurological disorders and neonatal malformations, 1 February 2016

Travel Measures:

•   There should be no restrictions on travel or trade with countries, areas and/or territories with Zika virus transmission,

•   Travellers to areas with Zika virus transmission should be provided with up to date advice on potential risks
and appropriate measures to reduce the possibility of exposure to mosquito bites,

•   Standard WHO recommendations regarding disinfection of aircraft and airports should be implemented“.

UNWTO will continue to monitor the situation in close contact with WHO and the relevant tourism authorities.

UNWTO also recalls that health and tourism authorities are working together to inform residents, tourists as well
as the industry about the precautions to be taken and the tourism sector is working closely with health authorities
to follow WHO prevention recommendations.

As per the impact on the tourism sector, it is too early to make any effective assessment considering the evolving
nature of the situation.

 

Relevant information:

WHO statement on the first meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee on Zika virus and observed increase in neurological disorders and neonatal malformations  (1 February 2016) 

WHO Information for Travellers

CTO and CHTA Statement on the ZIKA Virus 

{Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization}

[photo credits –featured image: “CDC map of Zika virus distribution in January 2016” by United States Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention – http://www.cdc.gov/zika/images/zik-world-map_01-15-2016_web.jpg. Licensed under Public Domain via
Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CDC_map_of_Zika_virus_distribution_in_January_2016.jpg#/media/File:CDC_map_
of_Zika_virus_distribution_in_January_2016.jpg]

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Zika Virus Fact Sheet –  Courtesy of the World Health Organization

Fact sheet

Updated January 2016


Key facts

  • Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes.
  • People with Zika virus disease usually have a mild fever, skin rash (exanthema) and conjunctivitis. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days.
  • There is no specific treatment or vaccine currently available.
  • The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites.
  • The virus is known to circulate in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific.

Introduction

Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in rhesus monkeys through a monitoring network of sylvatic yellow fever. It was subsequently identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Outbreaks of Zika virus disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific.

  • Genre: Flavivirus
  • Vector: Aedes mosquitoes (which usually bite during the morning and late afternoon/evening hours)
  • Reservoir: Unknown

Signs and Symptoms

The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) of Zika virus disease is not clear, but is likely to be a few days. The symptoms are similar to other arbovirus infections such as dengue, and include fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache. These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days.

During large outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil in 2013 and 2015 respectively, national health authorities reported potential neurological and auto-immune complications of Zika virus disease. Recently in Brazil, local health authorities have observed an increase in Zika virus infections in the general public as well as an increase in babies born with microcephaly in northeast Brazil. Agencies investigating the Zika outbreaks are finding an increasing body of evidence about the link between Zika virus and microcephaly. However, more investigation is needed before we understand the relationship between microcephaly in babies and the Zika virus. Other potential causes are also being investigated.

Transmission

Zika virus is transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito from theAedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. This is the same mosquito that transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

Zika virus disease outbreaks were reported for the first time from the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 (Yap and French Polynesia, respectively), and in 2015 from the Americas (Brazil and Colombia) and Africa (Cape Verde). In addition, more than 13 countries in the Americas have reported sporadic Zika virus infections indicating rapid geographic expansion of Zika virus.

Diagnosis

Zika virus is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation from blood samples. Diagnosis by serology can be difficult as the virus can cross-react with other flaviviruses such as dengue, West Nile and yellow fever.

Prevention

Mosquitoes and their breeding sites pose a significant risk factor for Zika virus infection. Prevention and control relies on reducing mosquitoes through source reduction (removal and modification of breeding sites) and reducing contact between mosquitoes and people.

This can be done by using insect repellent; wearing clothes (preferably light-coloured) that cover as much of the body as possible; using physical barriers such as screens, closed doors and windows; and sleeping under mosquito nets. It is also important to empty, clean or cover containers that can hold water such as buckets, flower pots or tyres, so that places where mosquitoes can breed are removed.

Special attention and help should be given to those who may not be able to protect themselves adequately, such as young children, the sick or elderly.

During outbreaks, health authorities may advise that spraying of insecticides be carried out. Insecticides recommended by the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme may also be used as larvicides to treat relatively large water containers.

Travellers should take the basic precautions described above to protect themselves from mosquito bites.

Treatment

Zika virus disease is usually relatively mild and requires no specific treatment. People sick with Zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice. There is currently no vaccine available.

WHO response

WHO is supporting countries to control Zika virus disease through:

  • Define and prioritize research into Zika virus disease by convening experts and partners.
  • Enhance surveillance of Zika virus and potential complications.
  • Strengthen capacity in risk communication to help countries meet their commitments under the International Health Regulations.
  • Provide training on clinical management, diagnosis and vector control including through a number of WHO Collaborating Centres.
  • Strengthen the capacity of laboratories to detect the virus.
  • Support health authorities to implement vector control strategies aimed at reducing Aedes mosquito populations such as providing larvicide to treat standing water sites that cannot be treated in other ways, such as cleaning, emptying, and covering them.
  • Prepare recommendations for clinical care and follow-up of people with Zika virus, in collaboration with experts and other health agencies.
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