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European Commission Reports On Funding Migration Related Activities

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Open Eyes Opinion {source: EC}

European Commission Fact Sheet





Brussels, 6 October 2015

Funding to main migration-related activities in the Western Balkans and Turkey


Updated with the most recent data available on 6 October 2015

For candidate countries (Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey) and potential candidates (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo), the EU provides both financial and technical support. The aim of this support is to help the beneficiaries make political and economic reforms and to help them meet the obligations necessary for membership of the EU.

This is done primarily through the Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA).

The IPA funds are a sound investment into the future of both the enlargement countries and the EU itself. The investments already made in these countries as well those to come over the next few years, have gone and will go also to projects such as integrated border management (IBM), reception centres for asylum seekers and refugees and support to help counter the trafficking of human beings.

For the period 2007-2013 IPA had a budget of €11.5 billion; its successor, IPA II, will build on the results already achieved by dedicating €11.7 billion for the period 2014-2020.

Pre-accession support for migration–related activities in the Western Balkans and Turkey since 2007, amounts to over €600 million.


Overall pre-accession support for migration-related activities (both past and planned):

€ 54 million

Since 2007, €45.6 million have been committed for Serbia in the area of home affairs. The assistance concentrates on the technological upgrade of equipment at border posts and infrastructures; upgrade and extension of asylum facilities; drafting of the new law on asylum and reform of the national asylum system. Within this amount, a total of €13 million has been earmarked under IPA II for the construction of the ‘Common Crossing Points’ (Mucibabe, Jarinje, Konculj).

The EU Delegation to Serbia is currently providing €240 000 from IPA II for additional needs, such as waste disposal, water and sanitation and other needs to be identified in cooperation with the Ministry of Labour, Employment, Veteran and Social Policy as well as the Commissariat for Refugees.

In addition to this money, the EU will continue supporting the reform of Serbia’s asylum system in the medium and long-term. Some €8.2 million have already been set aside from IPA funds for Serbia for projects, which are either being implemented or will start within the next year:

  • €3.2 million will be used to expand existing accommodation capacities for migrants in Serbia;
  • an EU twinning project of €1 million is already ongoing with a focus on drafting a new law on asylum and stepping up the reform of the asylum system;
  • €4 million have been allocated to further develop Serbia’s border surveillance systems.

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Overall pre-accession support for migration-related activities (both past and planned): €24 million

€12 million have been committed under IPA I for renovation of border police stations, fight against trafficking in human beings and strengthening police capacities for border management.

Under IPA II for 2016 the EU intends to provide €12 million to support the Government of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The money will help with the implementation of its migration policy through a number of different activities, including through improving infrastructure, equipment and IT support for the proper functioning of its asylum and migration policy; strengthening the functioning of visa policy; combating trafficking of human beings and support to victims of trafficking and violence; improving conditions in police stations; and strengthening of capacities for training and education in the area of home affairs.

Bosnia & Herzegovina (BiH)

Overall pre-accession support (since 2007) for migration-related activities (both past and planned): €16.8 million

In BiH €8.5 million of EU assistance has been disbursed covering technical assistance for effectively managing migration and asylum (€4 million), supply of equipment (€3.5 million) and the construction of a reception facility for migrants (€1 million).

Regarding border management, €6.3 million of IPA I assistance has been disbursed for infrastructure and capacity building, and an additional €2 million are foreseen to support border police under 2015 IPA II funds. 



Overall pre-accession support for migration-related activities (both past and planned): €22.6 million

€2.63 million have been committed between 2008-2013 under IPA I, including for actions to ensure that asylum seekers and vulnerable migrants have access to adequate protection and fair treatment (€250 000); and a twinning contract of €1 million to support the adoption of the Schengen acquis.

The amount of €20 million is planned to be committed in 2015 under IPA II. This will go to support ‘Integrated Border Management’. 


Overall pre-accession support for migration-related activities (both past and planned): €4.5 million

For 2012 under IPA I, €3 million were allocated for the reconstruction of border crossing points, with the aim of improving Albania’s focus on, inter alia, illegal migration and human trafficking. The planned programme for 2015 under IPA II includes a strong component on capacity building of law enforcement agencies, which covers, inter alia, Integrated Border Management (IBM) with the aim of improving the border security system to achieve full compliance with the EU and Schengen Acquis further. The indicative budget for IBM is €1.5 million for 2015.


Overall pre-accession support to migration-related activities (both past and planned): €7.1 million

Under IPA I funding since the 2007 related to migration amounts to €4.6 million.

The assistance was provided mainly through twinning. It focuses, among other things, on strengthening Kosovo’s effective management system, readmission and sustainable reintegration of returned migrants. In addition IPA funding supports the construction of facilities for asylum seekers.

Under IPA II €2.5 million is planned for strengthening Kosovo institutions in effective management of migration.


Overall pre-accession support for migration-related activities (both past and planned): €469 million

A number of structural actions have been undertaken to underpin Turkey’s efforts on the visa roadmap. Funding from IPA in the area of home affairs is increasing from €130 million over 2011-2013 to an indicative allocation of €245 million for the period 2014-2016.

The bulk of the assistance goes to:

  • integrated border management with a focus on land borders and sea borders;
  • support the construction of removal centres for illegal migrants and reception centres for asylum seekers;
  • support to the international protection system;
  • support to anti-trafficking of human beings.

 €94 million of IPA has also been mobilised to assist Turkey in coping with the influx of Syrian migrants (the EU total assistance for this purpose in Turkey amounting to over €175 million).

As part of EU’s efforts to step up the support to its neighbours in managing the refugee crisis the funding for Turkey could reach up to one billion euros, if Turkey wants and agrees. The funds can come from reallocation from various funding sources, including sectorial programs in support for Syrian refugees crisis/support to host communities/migration related activities.

Assistance to more than one country

As of November 2015, the multi-country IPA II programme ‘Regional support to protection-sensitive migration management in the Western Balkans and Turkey’ will be implemented for 3 years with a budget of €8 million. The programme will improve the capacity of the beneficiaries to offer protection-sensitive responses to migration flows by strengthening identification of migrants, improving information exchange and laying the groundwork for sustainable return solutions. The Commission will implement this project through the relevant EU agencies including Frontex as well as the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) and the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR).

Humanitarian funding for refugees and asylum seekers

On 26 of August 2015 the European Commission allocated €1.5 million in humanitarian funding to assist refugees and migrants in Serbia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The aid will support humanitarian partners in helping with the provision of basic emergency services such as drinking water, hygiene, health care, shelter, and protection to refugees and migrants, improvement of the reception centres, and coordination and reporting on migration issues in the region.

Recently the European Commission allocated €90 000 in EU humanitarian assistance to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (on July 31, 2015) and €150 000 to Serbia (on August 20, 2015) in response to this emergency situation. The funding was channelled through the Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and went directly to the two national Red Cross Societies of the two countries. With the new funding, overall EU humanitarian aid to support vulnerable refugees and migrants in Serbia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia amounts to €1.74 million.

To help Serbia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia tackle the migration challenge €17 million of additional support is planned for the two countries. Most of it comes from reallocation of funds.


Funding of migration-related activities in the Southern Neighbourhood region

Brussels, 6 October 2015

Updated with the most recent data available on 6 October 2015

The Global Approach on Migration and Mobility (GAMM) adopted in 2011 provides the general framework for the EU engagement in migration in the EU’s Southern Neighbourhood.

It identifies four domains for action: legal migration and mobility; fight against irregular migration; asylum and international protection; migration and development.

The Global Approach on Migration and Mobility (GAMM) adopted in 2011 provides the general framework for the EU engagement in migration in the EU’s Southern Neighbourhood and identifies four domains for action: legal migration and mobility; fight against irregular migration; asylum and international protection; migration and development.

The EU’s international engagement on migration in this region is therefore multi-faceted. It stems from the commitment to address root causes of displacement and forced migration by the use of foreign policy tools, including prevention and resolution of conflicts, enhancing the nexus between migration and development and by mainstreaming migration into development programmes, while also addressing human rights abuses and strengthening migrants’ and refugee rights.

The EU’s approach to addressing migratory challenges in its support to its Southern neighbours is in particular drawing on the following foreign policy instruments:

1/political dialogue and technical and financial support to Southern Neighbourhood partner countries,

2/regional frameworks encompassing Mediterranean and African countries,

3/ contribution to tackling security crises and conflicts having an impact on migratory flows, the latter of concern in particular for Libya and Syria.

By doing so, the EU’s approach combines a wide range of financial instruments acting in a complementary way, drawing on the European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI), thematic funds related to migration and asylum under the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI), and a series of other instruments, ranging from humanitarian aid to Home Affairs Funds (in particular the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund/AMIF) and Common Security and Defence Policy actions. Programmes developed jointly with Member States are also a growing feature of the EU support on migration (in particular the programmes put in place in the framework of the Mobility Partnerships with Morocco, Tunisia, Jordan and the assistance to Syria).

The total amount of on-going EU support specifically on migration in the EU’s Southern Neighbourhood region amounts to approximately €192 million.


Maghreb countries


The current support on migration to Morocco amounts to some €20 million and stems from the mobility partnership concluded in 2013 between the EU and Morocco. It ranges from institutional support to the new Moroccan State policy on migration (€10 million), promoting the access of regularised migrants to the EU for the purposes of education, health and employment, to supporting specialised civil society organisations which provide migrants with first help and adjustment services as well and which contribute to fighting racism and xenophobia. Support to the Moroccan diaspora is also provided in the framework of the EU support programme to the Mobility Partnership (the so-called “Sharaka” programme, €5 million), which facilitates the management of legal migration and enhances the contribution of the Moroccan diaspora to the country’s development. Smaller complementary measures involve the provision of technical expertise in the drafting of State legislation on asylum and trafficking of human beings.


The current support on migration to Algeria amounts to €1,9 million and aims at supporting the creation of business and employment opportunities through the involvement of migrants in local development of their country of origin.


The support on migration to Tunisia has recently been refocused with new programmes amounting to €8 million.

A €3 million programme was launched in early 2015, aiming at supporting the Tunisian authorities in putting in place an integrated border management system, as well as contributing to international protection of and promotion of the rights of migrants. The EU-Tunisia Mobility Partnership will also benefit from a DCI-funded support programme of €5 million addressing labour migration, circular migration as well as the issue of migration and development. In the framework of the ENI-funded Security sector reform programme adopted in July 2015, an important component of the EU support will be devoted to border management.


The past years have witnessed a significant investment in migration projects in Libya (€42.7 million committed between 2011 and 2014). The on-going support on migration amounts to €22,1 million and includes the following programmes:

  • Promoting resilience among vulnerable and at-risk populations through a community-based approach – €2.9 million;
  • Promoting a rights-based management of migration in Libya (two components, one implemented by the International Federation of the Red Cross – €6,2 million; and the other by the International Centre for Migration Policy Development – €3 million);
  • Prevention and management of irregular migration flows from the Sahara Desert to the Mediterranean Sea – €10 million.

Similarly to Syria, the migration crisis in Libya is also addressed through regional programmes of the European Neighbourhood Instrument (see below).


Mashrek countries


The current support on migration to Egypt amounts to €3,4 million. It is mainly channelled to governmental and non-governmental actors to protect human rights of migrants along the East African route, to prevent and fight human trafficking and to provide legal advocacy for refugees.


The current support on migration to Jordan amounts to €11 million. The country benefits from a €2.5 million programme under DCI supporting the implementation of the Mobility Partnership with the EU, as well as from an €8 million programme supporting border guards in providing humanitarian assistance to refugees crossing the Syrian-Jordanian border.


The current support to migration in Lebanon amounts to approximately €16 million. It covers the setting-up of an integrated border management system in the framework of a broader programme dealing with the Lebanese capacity to enhance security and stabilisation. Complementary programmes are provided through the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights, aiming at supporting and empowering migrants in Lebanon.


The support on migration towards Syria aims to address the current refugee crisis and encompasses support to neighbouring countries that host Syrian refugees. The EU effort is considerable, with over €4 billion of EU and Member States funds committed so far to address the crisis by means of humanitarian aid, support to stabilisation and development inside Syria and to Syrian refugees abroad and their host communities in the neighbouring countries. An additional €1 billion was pledged by the EU and Member States at the Kuwait III pledging conference in March of this year.

Apart from the funding provided by ECHO, two EU flagship initiatives that bring together EU and Member States expertise and funding towards an integrated European response are also of significant:

  • the Regional Development and Protection Programme (RDPP) to Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq aims at building a knowledge base on the socio-economic impact of refugees on host communities, enhances political dialogue with local and national authorities, provides protection of refugees as well as longer-term livelihood support, whenever possible to host communities and refugees alike. A number of Member States are co-funding the efforts (EU contribution – €12,3 million).

the recently established EU Regional Trust Fund in Response to the Syrian Crisis. It aims to provide a coherent and reinforced response to the Syrian crisis on a regional scale, responding to the needs of refugees from Syria in neighbouring countries, as well as to the needs of the communities hosting refugees and host country authorities, with a view to promoting resilience and early recovery. With Italy and Germany also contributing to the Trust Fund, strategic priorities and initial projects amounting to €40 million were adopted at its first Board meeting on 29 May 2015. Significant additional funds of more than €500 millionare expected be contributed to the EUTF mainly from EU budget still in 2015 and in particular in 2016. Member States are expected to match this 1:1, to bring the fund to over one billion.

Regional/global programmes

The current EU support to regional and global programmes dealing with migration issues in the Southern Neighbourhood amounts to €57,9 million (notwithstanding programmes financed under the Rabat and Khartoum process). They include:

  • the Euromed Migration programmes (for an amount of respectively €5 and 7 million for the third and fourth phases) aiming at fostering cooperation on migration issues between the South partners and EU countries, as well as between the South partners themselves;
  • Regional Development and Protection Programmes (RDPP) are currently in placein North Africa (covering Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Algeria, and whenever possible Libya, with certain actions possible in Niger or Mauritania) and in the Middle East (Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq); a new RDPP for North Africa is to be funded jointly under the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF, €10 million) as well as ENI.
  • The work of the European Asylum Support Office (EASO)and Frontex in Morocco, Tunisia and Jordan is currently supported (€1 million);
  • In relation with the crisis in Libya, the following regional programmes are currently implemented:
    • Increasing the capacity of the authorities of the North African countries to tackle irregular migration and illicit trafficking by strengthening their border surveillance systems (SeaHorse-Mediterranean Network): €4.5 million;
    • Stabilizing at-risk communities and enhancing migration management to enable smooth transitions in Egypt, Tunisia and Libya (“START”): €9.9 million.

Migratory issues are also addressed in a more global manner, taking into account the migratory routes. As an example, the setting up of an interactive map on migration in Africa, the Middle-East and the Mediterranean region is currently supported. More importantly, the support provided by the EU to the Rabat and Khartoum processes should be highlighted.

  • The Rabat Process

The Rabat Process was launched at the first Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development in July 2006 in Rabat. It brings together governments of 55 European and African (North, West & Central) countries, together with the European Commission and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). The objective is to enhance dialogue and cooperation on migration more broadly (legal migration and mobility; prevention of irregular migration and measures to counteract it; migration and development; international protection), as well as to identify common priorities in order to advance operational and practical cooperation.

  • The Khartoum Process

The Khartoum Process was launched at a Ministerial Conference in November 2014 in Rome. It is led by a Steering Committee comprised of five EU Member States (Italy, France, Germany, UK, Malta), five partner countries (Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Sudan) and the European Commission, the European External Action Service and the African Union Commission. Its objective is to establish a long-standing dialogue on migration and mobility aimed at enhancing the current cooperation, including through the identification and implementation of concrete projects. In the first phase, the focus will be on addressing trafficking in human beings and on smuggling of migrants.

Finally, the Commission has just decided to establish an European Union Emergency Trust Fund for stability and addressing root causes of irregular migration and displaced persons in Africa of €1.8 billion, in which a window of €200 million will provide support to Northern African countries.


[photo credits: “Place du Luxembourg Panorama 889” by JLogan – Own work. Licensed under CC BY 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons –]





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